Creative Room 4 Talk Fri, 20 May 2022 15:01:49 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Creative Room 4 Talk 32 32 Applying international law to cyber will be a daunting challenge Fri, 20 May 2022 14:57:50 +0000

Cyber-commentators gave a cautious reception to a speech by UK Attorney General Suella Braverman, donated to Chatham House Think Tankin which she outlines the government’s position on the application of international law to cyberspace, in the context of cyberwarfare, espionage, and other state-sponsored intrusions.

In his speech, Braverman outlined his thoughts on how international law might apply in cyberspace and called on governments to come together to establish an appropriate and clear legal framework. This was seen as a signal that, under certain circumstances, launching cyberattacks against hostile countries could be considered justified and legal.

“The UK’s aim is to ensure that future borders evolve in a way that reflects our democratic values ​​and interests and those of our allies,” she said. “We want to build on the growing activism of like-minded states in international e-governance.

“This includes ensuring that the legal framework is properly applied, in order to protect the exercise of powers deriving from the principle of state sovereignty – to which this government attaches great importance – from external coercion by other states.

“The law must be clear and well understood if it is to be part of a framework governing international relations and curbing irresponsible cyber behavior. Providing more detail on what constitutes illegal activity by states will provide greater clarity on when certain types of robust measures are warranted in response.

The principle of non-intervention is crucial

As noted earlier, Braverman said established international laws of non-intervention have an important role to play in shaping the future cyber legislative landscape.

“According to the Court [the International Court of Justice] in this case, all States or groups of States are prohibited from intervening, directly or indirectly, in the internal or external affairs of other States. Prohibited intervention must therefore relate to matters in which each state is authorized, by the principle of state sovereignty, to decide freely,” she said.

“One of them is the choice of a political, economic, social and cultural system, and the formulation of foreign policy. Intervention is unlawful when it uses means of coercion with regard to these choices, which must remain free.

“The UK’s position is that the non-intervention rule provides a clear basis in international law for assessing the legality of state conduct in cyberspace in peacetime.”

Appropriate responses

Braverman said this rule could serve as a benchmark for assessing legality, holding officials accountable and, most importantly, calibrating appropriate responses.

She explained that this rule could be particularly important in cyberspace for two reasons: first, because it sits at the heart of international law and protects key issues relating to a country’s sovereignty; second because, thanks to the prevalence of state-sponsored cyberattacks that fall below the threshold for the use of force (or its margins), it becomes essential to allow countries to define behavior as illegal.

Regarding how this rule might work in a cyber context, Braverman said it’s necessary to focus on the kinds of “coercive and disruptive” behaviors that countries can agree are illegal. This could include attacks on energy supply, medical care, economic stability (i.e. the financial system) or democratic processes. It will then become possible to establish the range of potential options that can be taken as a proportionate response.

Although much of the content of Braverman’s speech has already been exposed – including by his predecessor in office, Jeremy Wright – it is believed to be the first time the government has been specific in the types of cyberattacks that could justify an answer – a meaningful moment.

Braverman said there is a wide range of effective response options in such circumstances, such as sanctions, travel bans, exclusion from international bodies, etc. But beyond that, she said, a country can respond to an illegal act in a way that would be considered illegal under normal circumstances, that is, by carrying out its own cyberattacks.

“The UK has previously made clear that countermeasures are available in response to unlawful cyber operations by another state,” she said. “It is also clear that countermeasures do not have to be of the same type as the threat and could involve non-cybernetic means, where that is the right option to stop unlawful behavior in cyberspace.

“The National Cyber ​​Force brings together intelligence and defense personnel in this area for the first time under a unified command. It can conduct offensive cyber operations – flexible and scalable measures to meet a full range of operational requirements. And, most importantly, the National Cyber ​​Force operates within an established legal framework. Unlike some of our opponents, he respects international law. It is important that democratic states can legally take advantage of the capabilities of the cyber offensive, and that its operation is not limited to states that simply act irresponsibly or cause damage.

line in the sand

Oliver Pinson-Roxburgh, CEO of Defence.comwas among those who expressed support for the ideas set out by the Attorney General.

“This speech is an important line in the sand on proper security standards in cyberspace,” he said. “We live in an era of evolving and unprecedented threats, with threat actors able to deploy automated attack methods to operate at pace and scale.

“Faced with a sprawling threat landscape, where individual actors seeking financial gain intertwine with geopolitical disruptions fostered by nation-state actors, businesses need this kind of clarity from government to help them monitor and respond to threats as they occur.

“It was welcome to hear the Attorney General highlight the responsibility of the public and private sectors to maintain cyber resilience,” added Pinson-Roxburgh. “Companies cannot fully rely on the briefings and information provided by the NCSC. Hostile actors will look for vulnerabilities in any organization, large or small.

“Companies can take quick and easy steps to implement an end-to-end approach to cybersecurity, from password best practices for staff, to the latest vulnerability scanning and monitoring technologies. . As cyberspace legislation evolves, businesses can turn to outsourced cybersecurity experts to help them understand the latest guidelines and figure out how to stay compliant.

Keiron Holyome, Blackberry Vice President for the UK and Ireland, Middle East and Africa, also backed the government’s ambitions, describing cyber warfare as a “tremendous threat” to UK businesses and institutions.

“It is true that it is governed by international law,” he said. “As governments work on a Geneva convention for cyberspace, our critical infrastructure and businesses face a daily threat.”

However, he added, it was equally important not to lose sight of the wealth of strategies, skills and technologies that already exist that can prevent attacks before they happen.

“Continuous hunting for threats, deploying automated controls, proactive testing and securing every endpoint is possible with a prevention-focused approach,” Holyome said. “It starts with a zero-trust environment – ​​no user can access anything until they prove who they are, their access is authorized, and they are not acting maliciously.

“The best way for UK organizations to defend against cyber warfare is to be more proactive – and less reactive – in their protection strategy, deploying threat-informed defense and managed services to counter security challenges. skills and resources. By building a strong bastion of preventive security, organizations can increase their resilience against the global cyber threat.

large order

Steve Cottrell, Chief Technology Officer EMEA at Vectra AIsaid: “While it is hugely positive that the UK Government is exploring options to bring clarity to this area, it is difficult to see how anything meaningful can be achieved without broad international consensus and legislative alignment.

“Cyberattacks frequently cross international borders and are often perpetrated from countries that condone or outright encourage the attacks because it serves their broader political interests.

“Furthermore, there is a challenge with regard to activities that might qualify as state espionage – as they are not explicitly prohibited by international law,” he said. “Geopolitics will likely continue to be the primary enabler of cyberattacks against nations and organizations for the foreseeable future, and it’s critical that security advocates remain alert to the evolving cyber threat landscape.”

Ismael Valenzuela, Vice President of Research and Threat Intelligence at Blackberry, said, “Establishing rules of conduct for cyber conflicts and defining justified responses is a difficult task. While this definition of international law in cyberspace is an admirable and necessary development that signifies the importance of cybersecurity for nation states, public and private organizations must continue to prioritize improving their proactive defensive posture. against cyberattacks.

Grunt, hoo, gasp, cry: chimpanzees use complex vocal communication Thu, 19 May 2022 21:29:00 +0000

WASHINGTON: Scientists exploring the evolutionary origin of language have detected a vocal communication system in wild chimpanzees that is more complex and structured than previously known, with a dozen types of calls combined into hundreds of different sequences .

The researchers made more than 4,800 recordings of vocalizations produced by members of three groups of chimpanzees inhabiting Taï National Park in Côte d’Ivoire, one of the last major remnants of ancient rainforest in East Africa. West and home to a rich variety of plants and animals.

Chimpanzees, which along with their cousins ​​the bonobos are the closest living genetic relatives of humans, are intelligent and highly social apes that make and use tools and can learn some basic human signs from the language of animals. signs. Scientists have long known that chimpanzees use a variety of vocalizations in the wild, but the new study offered a comprehensive look at this intra-species communication.

“It is not a language but it is one of the most complex forms of communication described in a non-human animal,” said behavioral ecologist Cédric Girard-Buttoz of the CNRS Institute of Cognitive Sciences and lead author of the study published this week. in the journal Communications Biology.

Call types included growl, gasp growl, hoo sound, pants hoot, bark sound, gasp bark, pants, screech, gasp cry, whine, gasp roar and the non-vocal lip smacking and raspberry sounds. The researchers determined that these types of calls were used in 390 different sequences.

The order in which the chimpanzees made the calls appeared to follow rules and structure, although the study did not include conclusions about potential meanings.

“The key finding is the ability of a non-human primate to produce multiple structured voice sequences and to recombine small sequences with two calls into longer sequences by adding calls to them. This is important because it shows the premise structured communication that may have been the foundation for the evolution towards syntax in our language,” Girard-Buttoz said.

Syntax refers to the arrangement of words and phrases to construct understandable sentences.

“One of the most common sequences is the well-described sequence “pant hoot” either “hoo” plus “pant hoot” or “hoo” plus “pant hoot” plus “pant shout” or “pant bark”. Other sequences are also common like ‘hoo’ plus ‘pant grunt’ or ‘grunt’ plus ‘pant grunt.’ In general, ‘pant grunt’ and ‘pant hoot’ are the most common calls used in these sequences,” said Girard-Buttoz.

The researchers want to know if the different sequences communicate a wider range of meanings in the complex social environment of chimpanzees. They have suspicions about the potential meanings of certain vocalizations.

“We need to explore in detail the emission contexts of these vocalizations to see if it moves between single calls and sequences,” Girard-Buttoz said. “Then we need to conduct reading experiments to see if the suspected meaning matches the behavioral response of chimpanzees when they hear the call.”

Researchers aren’t sure whether chimpanzee vocal communication could be similar to the beginnings of language in the human evolutionary line. Humans and chimpanzees share a common ancestor but split into separate lineages perhaps 7 million years ago.

“The protolanguage was probably between what chimpanzees do and what humans do,” Girard-Buttoz said.

Emirates News Agency – ADNEC holds networking session with ISNR Abu Dhabi 2022 partners Thu, 19 May 2022 14:14:00 +0000

ABU DHABI, 19th May, 2022 (WAM) — The Abu Dhabi National Exhibitions Corporation (ADNEC), in cooperation with the Ministry of Interior, organized a networking session with partners of the International Security Exhibition and Resilience (ISNR Abu Dhabi), which was held from October 10 to 12, 2022, at the Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Centre.

The session was organized to allow attendees to network with senior government officials and industry leaders in cybersecurity solutions ahead of the event.

During the session, the partners were informed about the latest developments related to the 7th edition of the exhibition, which is organized by ADNEC in cooperation with the Ministry of Interior, informing them of the needs of the relevant government agencies in terms of innovative security solutions.

Major General Salem Mubarak Al Shamsi, Vice Chairman of the Senior Organizing Committee of the International Expo for National Security and Resilience (ISNR Abu Dhabi), said in his statement on the sidelines of the event, “The he International National Security and Resilience Exhibition (ISNR Abu Dhabi 2022) plays a central role in the development and expansion of participants’ business. We are confident that this exhibition will provide new insights and valuable opportunities to all participants wishing to develop their activities.The exhibition aims to form a common platform that brings together actors from the fields of national security and cybersecurity, in order to bring out a future for our world characterized by networking and security.

“This session aims to allow exhibitors to meet and network before the official launch of the exhibition, and it has been designed specifically to accentuate the reach and reputation of this event and its importance for the benefit of all participants. We believe that this session is a valuable networking opportunity before the start of official activities of the planned event, which provides a global interactive platform to exchange ideas, experiences and international practices in the development and updating of solutions in the fields of police and security, in addition to consolidating relations between actors in this sector and initiating new relations of cooperation,” added Major General Al Shamsi.

Saeed Al Mansouri, CEO of Capital Events, part of ADNEC Group, said: “ISNR Abu Dhabi 2022 aims to provide support to all relevant domestic and international parties and exhibitors who will be attending the event, leveraging our extensive network of global partners. companies and our in-depth knowledge of the sector.”

“Participating in ISNR Abu Dhabi 2022 will provide many opportunities, including witnessing the latest innovations, networking with government agency decision makers, promoting brands at scale and enhancing their digital impact,” a- he added.

“Participants at ISNR 2022 will have the opportunity to meet guests from across the region and the world and network with official delegations and VIPs, including representatives and officials from Ministries of Defense, Chiefs of general staff and armed forces, and commanders of air and naval forces.

The 7th edition of ISNR Abu Dhabi will focus on showcasing the latest security innovations and solutions, and on consolidating business, relationships and partnerships between companies operating in the four sectors of national security, cybersecurity , police and law enforcement, and protection of vital facilities. It also includes three high-level conferences on the future of police work, national cybersecurity and mitigating the risks of national digital transformation ISNR Abu Dhabi will examine a wide range of technologies in the areas of digital forensics, the fight against malware, spam and viruses. , human factors, governance, compliance, business continuity, accident response, identity and access management, application security, IoT security, cloud security, mobile phone security, cyberterrorism and cyberwar protection, network security, data security, managed security services (MSS), and encryption.

Michael James Shaw from The Walking Dead in Blood and Treasure season 2 Wed, 18 May 2022 19:00:00 +0000

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